Prayer <prar> (Grk: deesis, Grk: proseuche, (Grk: enteuxis; for an excellent discussion of the meaning of these see Thayer’s Lexicon, p. 126, under the word Grk: deesis; the chief verbs are Grk: euchomai, Grk: proseuchomai, and Grk: deomai, especially in Luke and Acts; Grk: aiteo, “to ask a favor” distinguished from Grk: erotao, “to ask a question,” is found occasionally): In the Bible “prayer” is used in a simpler and a more complex a narrower and a wider signification. In the former case, it is a supplication for benefits either for one’s self (petition) or for others (intercession). In the latter, it is an act of worship that covers all souls in its approach to God. Supplication is at the heart of it, for prayer always springs out of a sense of need and a belief that God is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him (Heb 11:6). But adoration and confession and thanksgiving also find an It place, so that the suppliant becomes a worshipper. It is unnecessary to distinguish all the various terms for prayer that are employed in the Old Testament and the New Testament. But the fact should be noticed that in the Hebrew and Greek aloe there are on the one hand words for prayer that denote a direct petition or short, sharp cry of the heart in its distress ( Ps 30:2; 2 Cor 12:8), and on the other “prayers” like that of Hannah (1 Sam 2:1-10 ), which is, in reality, a song of thanksgiving, or that of Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ, in which intercession is mingled with a doxology ( Eph 3:14-21).
The history of prayer as it meets us here reflects various stages of experience and revelation. In the patriarchal period, when `men began to call upon the name of the Lord’ (Gen 4:26; compare 12:8; 21:33), prayer is naive, familiar, and direct (Gen 15:2 ff; 17:18; 18:23 ff; 24:12). It is evidently associated with sacrifice (Gen 12:8; 13:4; 26:25), the underlying idea probably being that the gift or offering would help to elicit the desired response. Analogous to this is Jacob’s vow, itself a species of prayer, in which the granting of desired benefits becomes the condition of promised service and fidelity ( Gen 28:20 ff). In the pre-exilic history of Israel prayer still retains many of the primitive features of the patriarchal type (Ex 3:4; Nu 11:11-15; Jdg 6:13 ff; 11:30 f; 1 Sam 1:11; 2 Sam 15:8; Ps 66:13 f). The Law has remarkably little to say on the subject, differing here from the later Judaism (see Schurer, HJP, II, I, 290, index-vol, p. 93; and compare Mt 6:5 ff; 23:14; Acts 3:1; 16:13); while it confirms the association of prayer with sacrifices, which now appear, however, not as gifts in anticipation of benefits to following, but as expiations of guilt ( Dt 21:1-9) or thank offerings for past mercies (Dt 26:1-11). Moreover, the free, frank access of the private individual to God is more and more giving place to the mediation of the priest (Dt 21:5; 26:3), the intercession of the prophet (Ex 32:11-13; 1 Sam 7:5-13; 12:23), the ordered approach of tabernacle and temple services (Ex 40; 1 Ki 8). The prophet, it is true, approaches God immediately and freely–Moses (Ex 34:34; Dt 34:10) and David (2 Sam 7:27) are to be numbered among the prophets–but he does so in virtue of his office, and on the ground especially of his possession of the Spirit and his intercessory function (compare Ezek 2:2; Jer 14:15).
A new epoch in the history of prayer in Israel was brought about by the experiences of the Exile. Chastisement drove the nation to seek God more earnestly than before, and as the way of approach through the external forms of the temple and its sacrifices was now closed, the spiritual path of prayer was frequented with a new assiduity. The devotional habits of Ezra (Ezr 7:27; 8:23), Nehemlab (Neh 2:4; 4:4,9, etc.) and Daniel ( Dan 6:10) prove how large a place prayer came to hold in the individual life; while the utterances recorded in Ezr 9:6-15; Neh 1:5-11; 9:5-38; Dan 9:4-19; Isa 63:7 through 64:12 serve as illustrations of the language and spirit of the prayers of the Exile, and show especially the prominence now given to confession of sin. In any survey of the Old Testament teaching the Psalms to occupy a place by themselves, both on account of the large period they cover in history and because we are ignorant in most cases as to the particular circumstances of their origin. But speaking generally it may be said that here we see the loftiest flights attained by the spirit of prayer under the old dispensation–the intensest craving for pardon, purity, and other spiritual blessings (Ps 51; 130), the most heartfelt longing for a living communion with God Himself (Ps 42:2; 63:1; 84:2).
Here it will be convenient to deal separately with the material furnished by the Gospel narratives of the life and teaching of Christ and that found in the remaining books. The distinctively Christian view of prayer comes to us from the Christ of the Gospels. We have to notice His own habits in the matter ( Lk 3:21; 6:12; 9:16,29; 22:32,39-46; 23:34-46; Mt 27:46; Jn 17), which for all who accept Him as the revealer of the Father and the final authority in religion immediately dissipate all theoretical objections to the value and efficacy of prayer. Next, we have His general teaching on the subject in parables ( Lk 11:5-9; 18:1-14) and incidental sayings ( Mt 5:44; 6:5-8; 7:7-11; 9:38; 17:21; 18:19; 21:22; 24:20; 26:41 and the parallels), which presents prayer, not as a mere energizing of the religious soul that is followed by beneficial spiritual reactions, but as the request of a child to a father (Mt 6:8; 7:11), subject, indeed, to the father’s will (Mt 7:11; compare 6:10; 26:39,42; 1 Jn 5:14), but secure always of loving attention and response (Mt 7:7-11; 21:22). In this teaching us to approach God as our Father, Jesus raised prayer to its highest plane, making it not less reverent than it was at its best in Old Testament times, while far more intimate and trustful. In the LORD’S PRAYER (which see). He summed up His ordinary teaching on the subject in a concrete example which serves as a model and breviary of prayer (Mt 6:9-13; Lk 11:2-4). But according to the Fourth Gospel, this was not His final word upon the subject. On the night of the betrayal, and in full view of His death and resurrection and ascension to God’s right hand, He told His disciples that prayer was henceforth to be addressed to the Father in the name of the Son, and that prayer thus offered was sure to be granted (Jn 16:23,24, 26). The differentia of Christian prayer thus consists in its being offered in the name of Christ; while the secret of its success lies on the one hand in the new access to the Father which Christ has secured for His people ( Jn 17:19; compare Heb 4:14-16; 10:19-22), and on the other in the fact that prayer offered in the name of Christ will be prayer in harmony with the Father’s will (Jn 15:7; compare 1 Jn 3:22 f; 5:13 f).
In the Acts and Epistles, we see the apostolic church giving effect to Christ’s teaching on prayer. It was in a praying atmosphere that the church was born (Acts 1:14; compare 2:1 ); and throughout its early history prayer continued to be its vital breath and native air ( Acts 2:42; 3:1; 6:4,6 and passim). The Epistles abound in references to prayer. Those of Paul, in particular, contain frequent allusions to his own personal practice in the matter (Rom 1:9; Eph 1:16; Phil 1:9; 1 Thess 1:2, etc.), and many exhortations to his readers to cultivate the praying habit ( Rom 12:12; Eph 6:18; Phil 4:6; 1 Thess 5:17, etc.). But the new and characteristic thing about Christian prayer as it meets us now is its connection with the Spirit. It has become a spiritual gift ( 1 Cor 14:14-16); and even those who have not this gift in the exceptional charismatic sense may “pray in the Spirit” whenever they come to the throne of grace (Eph 6:18; Jude 1:20). The gift of the Spirit, promised by Christ (Jn 14:16 ff, etc.), has raised prayer to its highest power by securing for it divine cooperation (Rom 8:15,26; Gal 4:6). Thus Christian prayer in its full New Testament meaning is a prayer addressed to God as Father, in the name of Christ as Mediator, and through the enabling grace of the indwelling Spirit.
in other definition: Prayer is converse with God; the intercourse of the soul with God, not in contemplation or meditation, but in direct address to him. Prayer may be oral or mental, occasional or constant, ejaculatory or formal. It is a “beseeching the Lord” Ex 32:11 “pouring out the soul before the Lord” 1Sa 1:15 “praying and crying to heaven” 2Ch 32:20 “seeking unto God and making supplication” Job 8:5 “drawing near to God” Ps 73:28 “bowing the knees” Eph 3:14 Prayer presupposes a belief in the personality of God, his ability and willingness to hold intercourse with us, his personal control of all things and of all his creatures and all their actions. Acceptable prayer must be sincere Heb 10:22 offered with reverence and godly fear, with a humble sense of our own insignificance as creatures and of our own unworthiness as sinners, with earnest importunity, and with unhesitating submission to the divine will. Prayer must also be offered in the faith that God is, and is the hearer and answerer of prayer, and that he will fulfil his word, “Ask, and ye shall receive” Mt 7:7,8 21:22 Mr 11:24 Joh 14:13,14 and in the name of Christ Joh 16:23,24 15:16 Eph 2:18 5:20 Col 3:17 1Pe 2:5 Prayer is of different kinds, secret Mt 6:6 social, as family prayers, and in social worship; and public, in the service of the sanctuary. Intercessory prayer is enjoined Nu 6:23 Job 42:8 Isa 62:6 Ps 122:6 1Ti 2:1 Jas 5:14 and there are many instances on record of answers having been given to such prayers, e.g., of Abraham Ge 17:18,20 18:23-32 20:7,17,18 of Moses for Pharaoh Ex 8:12,13,30,31 Ex 9:33 for the Israelites Ex 17:11 ,13 32:11-14,31-34 Nu 21:7,8 De 9:18,19,25 for Miriam Nu 12:13 for Aaron De 9:20 of Samuel 1Sa 7:5-12 of Solomon 1Ki 8:1 … 2Ch 6:1 … Elijah 1Ki 17:20-23 Elisha 2Ki 4:33-36 Isaiah 2Ki 19:1 … Jer 42:2-10 Peter Ac 9:40 the church Ac 12:5-12 Paul Ac 28:8 No rules are anywhere in Scripture laid down for the manner of prayer or the attitude to be assumed by the suppliant. There is mention made of kneeling in prayer 1Ki 8:54 2Ch 6:13 Ps 95:6 Isa 45:23 Lu 22:41 Ac 7:60 9:40 Eph 3:14 etc.; of bowing and falling prostrate Ge 24:26,52 Ex 4:31 12:27 Mt 26:39 Mr 14:35 etc.; of spreading out the hands 1Ki 8:22,38,54 Ps 28:2 63:4 88:9 1Ti 2:8 etc.; and of standing 1Sa 1:26 1Ki 8:14,55 2Ch 20:9 Mr 11:25 Lu 18:11,13 If we except the “Lord’s Prayer” Mt 6:9-13 which is, however, rather a model or pattern of prayer than a set prayer to be offered up, we have no special form of prayer for general use given us in Scripture. Prayer is frequently enjoined in Scripture Ex 22:23,27 1Ki 3:5 2Ch 7:14 Ps 37:4 Isa 55:6 Joe 2:32 Eze 36:37 etc., and we have very many testimonies that it has been answered Ps 3:4 4:1 6:8 18:6 28:6 30:2 34:4 118:5 Jas 5:16-18 etc. “Abraham’s servant prayed to God, and God directed him to the person who should be wife to his master’s son and heir Ge 24:10-20 “Jacob prayed to God, and God inclined the heart of his irritated brother, so that they met in peace and friendship Ge 32:24-30 33:1-4 “Samson prayed to God, and God showed him a well where he quenched his burning thirst, and so lived to judge Israel Jud 15:18-20 “David prayed, and God defeated the counsel of Ahithophel 2Sa 15:31 16:20-23 17:14-23 “Daniel prayed, and God enabled him both to tell Nebuchadnezzar his dream and to give the interpretation of it Da 2:16-23 “Nehemiah prayed, and God inclined the heart of the king of Persia to grant him leave of absence to visit and rebuild Jerusalem Ne 1:11 2:1-6 “Esther and Mordecai prayed, and God defeated the purpose of Haman, and saved the Jews from destruction Es 4:15-17 6:7,8 “The believers in Jerusalem prayed, and God opened the prison doors and set Peter at liberty, when Herod had resolved upon his death Ac 12:1-12 “Paul prayed that the thorn in the flesh might be removed, and his prayer brought a large increase of spiritual strength, while the thorn perhaps remained 2Co 12:7-10 “Prayer is like the dove that Noah sent forth, which blessed him not only when it returned with an olive-leaf in its mouth, but when it never returned at all.”, Robinson’s Job